Family: Verbenaceae (verbena family)
Duration and Habit: Annual Subshrub
Verbena brasiliensis is an annual or short-lived perennial herb with erect, hispid, quadrangular stems of 1-2.5 meters in height. Upper branches are 4-9 cm long, opposite, and ascending. Opposite, elliptic leaves are simple and serate, 4-10 cm long by 0.8-2.5 cm wide. Leaves are generally hispid, with veins on undersides bearing large bristles. Bracted flowers are borne on terminal, loosely arranged spikes which are 0.5-4.5 cm long by 4-5 cm wide and are arranged in triads. Lanceolate bracts subtend the 5-lobed calyx, which is 2-3.5 mm long, with lobes united nearly to the apex. The bluish purple corolla is salverform, zygomorphic, and is exserted from the calyx slightly. The tube is 2.75-3.25 mm long and lobes are less than 1 mm in length. Bracts, calyx, and corolla tube are all pubescent. Anthers are attatched in the upper part of the corolla tube. Fruit is a schizocarp which usually produces 2 brown nutlets, 1.2-1.9mm long
Native Lookalikes: Currently no information available, or there are no native species that could be confused with Brazilian vervain.
Ecological Threat: Verbena brasiliensis is an invasive plant that may threaten native plants species by displacing them. It is considered a significant invasive species of the mid-south United States, and is prohibited on National Forest System Lands of the United States.
Biology & Spread: Verbena brasiliensis reproduces sexually by the production of seeds.
History: Verbena brasiliensis is used as an ornamental and is cultivated for garden use
U.S. Habitat: range/grasslands, riparian zones, urban areas, wetlands
U.S. Nativity: Introduced to U.S.
Native Origin: South America
U.S. Present: AL, AR, CA, FL, GA, HI, KY, LA, MO, MS, NC, OK, OR, SC, TN, TX, VA
Distribution: Verbena brasiliensis is now found in coastal Europe, southern Africa, Australasia, and North America
List All Observations of Verbena brasiliensis reported by Citizen Scientists
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Preventative: In an effort to manage the species, Verbena brasiliensis should not be planted or sold as an ornamental.
Chemical: Herbicide may be used as a managment tool, but the herbicides sulfometuron and hexazinone are not effective on this species.
National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII) & IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG). 2008. Verbena brasiliensis (herb). Accessed 25 November 2008: http://www.invasivespecies.net/database/species/ecology.asp?si=1213&fr=1&sts=.
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