Family: Verbenaceae (verbena family)
Duration and Habit: Annual Subshrub
Verbena brasiliensis is an annual or short-lived perennial herb with erect, hispid, quadrangular stems of 1-2.5 meters in height. Upper branches are 4-9 cm long, opposite, and ascending. Opposite, elliptic leaves are simple and serate, 4-10 cm long by 0.8-2.5 cm wide. Leaves are generally hispid, with veins on undersides bearing large bristles. Bracted flowers are borne on terminal, loosely arranged spikes which are 0.5-4.5 cm long by 4-5 cm wide and are arranged in triads. Lanceolate bracts subtend the 5-lobed calyx, which is 2-3.5 mm long, with lobes united nearly to the apex. The bluish purple corolla is salverform, zygomorphic, and is exserted from the calyx slightly. The tube is 2.75-3.25 mm long and lobes are less than 1 mm in length. Bracts, calyx, and corolla tube are all pubescent. Anthers are attatched in the upper part of the corolla tube. Fruit is a schizocarp which usually produces 2 brown nutlets, 1.2-1.9mm long
Native Lookalikes: Currently no information available here yet, or there are no native Texas species that could be confused with Brazilian vervain.
Ecological Threat: Verbena brasiliensis is an invasive plant that may threaten native plants species by displacing them. It is considered a significant invasive species of the mid-south United States, and is prohibited on National Forest System Lands of the United States.
Biology & Spread: Verbena brasiliensis reproduces sexually by the production of seeds.
History: Verbena brasiliensis is used as an ornamental and is cultivated for garden use
U.S. Habitat: range/grasslands, riparian zones, urban areas, wetlands
U.S. Nativity: Introduced to U.S.
Native Origin: South America
U.S. Present: AL, AR, CA, FL, GA, HI, KY, LA, MO, MS, NC, OK, OR, SC, TN, TX, VA
Distribution in Texas: Verbena brasiliensis is now found in coastal Europe, southern Africa, Australasia, and North America
Invaders of Texas Map: Verbena brasiliensis
EDDMapS: Verbena brasiliensis
USDA Plants Texas County Map: Verbena brasiliensis
List All Observations of Verbena brasiliensis reported by Citizen Scientists
USE PESTICIDES WISELY: ALWAYS READ THE ENTIRE PESTICIDE
LABEL CAREFULLY, FOLLOW ALL MIXING AND APPLICATION INSTRUCTIONS AND WEAR
ALL RECOMMENDED PERSONAL PROTECTIVE GEAR AND CLOTHING. CONTACT YOUR STATE
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOR ANY ADDITIONAL PESTICIDE USE REQUIREMENTS,
RESTRICTIONS OR RECOMMENDATIONS. MENTION OF PESTICIDE PRODUCTS
ON THIS WEB SITE DOES NOT CONSTITUTE ENDORSEMENT OF ANY MATERIAL.
Preventative: In an effort to manage the species, Verbena brasiliensis should not be planted or sold as an ornamental.
Chemical: Herbicide may be used as a managment tool, but the herbicides sulfometuron and hexazinone are not effective on this species.
National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII) & IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG). 2008. Verbena brasiliensis (herb). Accessed 25 November 2008: http://www.invasivespecies.net/database/species/ecology.asp?si=1213&fr=1&sts=.
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