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Federal Noxious Weed
TDA Noxious Weed
TPWD Prohibited Exotic Species
Invasive Plant Atlas of the US

NOTE: means species is on that list.

Verbena brasiliensis


Brazilian vervain

Synonym(s):
Family: Verbenaceae (verbena family)
Duration and Habit: Annual Subshrub


Photographer: Ted Bodner
Source: USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database / Miller, J.H. and K.V. Miller. 2005. Forest plants of the southeast and their wildlife uses. University of Georgia Press, Athens

Description

Verbena brasiliensis is an annual or short-lived perennial herb with erect, hispid, quadrangular stems of 1-2.5 meters in height. Upper branches are 4-9 cm long, opposite, and ascending. Opposite, elliptic leaves are simple and serate, 4-10 cm long by 0.8-2.5 cm wide. Leaves are generally hispid, with veins on undersides bearing large bristles. Bracted flowers are borne on terminal, loosely arranged spikes which are 0.5-4.5 cm long by 4-5 cm wide and are arranged in triads. Lanceolate bracts subtend the 5-lobed calyx, which is 2-3.5 mm long, with lobes united nearly to the apex. The bluish purple corolla is salverform, zygomorphic, and is exserted from the calyx slightly. The tube is 2.75-3.25 mm long and lobes are less than 1 mm in length. Bracts, calyx, and corolla tube are all pubescent. Anthers are attatched in the upper part of the corolla tube. Fruit is a schizocarp which usually produces 2 brown nutlets, 1.2-1.9mm long

Ecological Threat: Verbena brasiliensis is an invasive plant that may threaten native plants species by displacing them. It is considered a significant invasive species of the mid-south United States, and is prohibited on National Forest System Lands of the United States.

Biology & Spread: Verbena brasiliensis reproduces sexually by the production of seeds.

History: Verbena brasiliensis is used as an ornamental and is cultivated for garden use

U.S. Habitat: range/grasslands, riparian zones, urban areas, wetlands

Distribution

U.S. Nativity: Introduced to U.S.

Native Origin: South America

U.S. Present: AL, AR, CA, FL, GA, HI, KY, LA, MO, MS, NC, OK, OR, SC, TN, TX, VA

Distribution: Verbena brasiliensis is now found in coastal Europe, southern Africa, Australasia, and North America

Mapping

Invaders of Texas Map: Verbena brasiliensis
EDDMapS: Verbena brasiliensis
USDA Plants Texas County Map: Verbena brasiliensis

Invaders of Texas Observations

List All Observations of Verbena brasiliensis reported by Citizen Scientists

Resembles/Alternatives

Management


Preventative: In an effort to manage the species, Verbena brasiliensis should not be planted or sold as an ornamental.

Chemical: Herbicide may be used as a managment tool, but the herbicides sulfometuron and hexazinone are not effective on this species.

USE PESTICIDES WISELY: ALWAYS READ THE ENTIRE PESTICIDE LABEL CAREFULLY, FOLLOW ALL MIXING AND APPLICATION INSTRUCTIONS AND WEAR ALL RECOMMENDED PERSONAL PROTECTIVE GEAR AND CLOTHING. CONTACT YOUR STATE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOR ANY ADDITIONAL PESTICIDE USE REQUIREMENTS, RESTRICTIONS OR RECOMMENDATIONS. MENTION OF PESTICIDE PRODUCTS ON THIS WEB SITE DOES NOT CONSTITUTE ENDORSEMENT OF ANY MATERIAL.

Text References

National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII) & IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG). 2008. Verbena brasiliensis (herb). Accessed 25 November 2008: http://www.invasivespecies.net/database/species/ecology.asp?si=1213&fr=1&sts=.

Online Resources

Search Online

Google Search: Verbena brasiliensis
Google Images: Verbena brasiliensis
NatureServe Explorer: Verbena brasiliensis
USDA Plants: Verbena brasiliensis
Invasive Plant Atlas of the United States: Verbena brasiliensis
Bugwood Network Images: Verbena brasiliensis

Last Updated: 2008-25-11 by HTG
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