Perilla frutescens (L.) Britton (Beefsteakplant )

 


John D. Byrd,
Mississippi State University

 

 

 

Family: Lamiaceae

Synonym(s): Perilla mint, beefsteak, beefsteak mint, Purple mint

Duration: Annual

Habit: Herb


Listed by:
Invasive Plant Atlas of the US: 1
Federal Noxious Weed: 0
TDA Noxious Weed: 0
TPWD Prohibited Exotic Species: 0

Description: Beefsteak plants are small, freely branching annual herbs in the mint family (Lamiaceae) that reach a height between 18 and 30 inches. Small ovate leaves are generally purple or green and are arranged in an opposite formation along the four-sided stem. Small bell-shaped flowers are white and purple with a distinctive ring of fine hairs along the bottom. They may be arranged in a terminal cluster or within the leaf axils and appear between July and October. Stems and leaves have a very strong characteristic odor. It superficially resembles basil and coleus.

History: Introduced as a ornamental, herb and salad plant.

Biology & Spread: It is extremely invasive by wind-borne seeds.

Ecological Threat: Often planted as showy ornamentals, beefsteak plants may readily escape cultivation, spreading to disturbed areas where they disrupt native ecosystems. The species has toxic characteristics and very few predators. It is ordinarily avoided by cattle and has been implicated in cattle poisoning. Plants are most toxic if cut and dried for hay late in the summer, during seed production. One reason for beefsteak plants' survival in pastures is that cattle avoid it. Sold as a salad plant for its dark purple foliage, this member of the mint family is extremely invasive by wind-borne seeds.

US Habitat: Prominent along roadsides, railroad rightof- ways, streams, spring branches, pastures, fields, woodlands and gravel bars. It can grow in rich soils, alluvial soils or dry soils.

Distribution

US Nativity: Introduced

Native Origin: Asia

US States: AL, AR, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, MI, MN, MO, MS, NC, NE, NJ, NY, OH, OK, PA, SC, TN, TX, VA, WI, W(AL, AR, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, IA, IL, IN, KS, KY, LA, MA, MD, MI, MN, MO, MS, NC, NE, NJ, NY, OH, OK, PA, SC, TN, TX, VA, WI, WV

Resembles/Alternatives:

Management: Manual- Pull seedlings and small or shallow-rooted plants when soil is moist. Dig out larger plants, including the root systems. To prevent spread of seeds, cut off spent flowers ("deadhead") or cut off seeds or fruits before they ripen. Bag, and burn or send to the landfill.

Chemical- It can be effectively controlled using any of several readily available general use herbicides such as Glyphosate. Follow label and state requirements.

USE PESTICIDES WISELY: ALWAYS READ THE ENTIRE PESTICIDE LABEL CAREFULLY, FOLLOW ALL MIXING AND APPLICATION INSTRUCTIONS AND WEAR ALL RECOMMENDED PERSONAL PROTECTIVE GEAR AND CLOTHING. CONTACT YOUR STATE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOR ANY ADDITIONAL PESTICIDE USE REQUIREMENTS, RESTRICTIONS OR RECOMMENDATIONS. MENTION OF PESTICIDE PRODUCTS ON THIS WEB SITE DOES NOT CONSTITUTE ENDORSEMENT OF ANY MATERIAL.

Listing Source

Texas Department ofAgriculture Noxious Plant List
Texas Parks and Wildlife Department Prohibited Exotic Species
Invaders Program
Federal Noxious Weed
Union of Concerned Scientists
United States Forest Service Southern Research Station

Text References

USDA Forest Service. 2005. Beefsteak Plant: Perilla frutescens (L.) Britt. Weed of the Week. WOW 01-23-05

Data Source

Last Updated: 10-12-2009 by HTG