Phyllostachys aurea Carr. ex A.& C. Rivi're (Golden bamboo )

 


Chuck Bargeron,
The University of Georgia, Bugwood.org

 

 

 

Family: Poaceae (Grass Family)

Synonym(s):

Duration: Perennial

Habit: Grass/Grasslike


Listed by:
Invasive Plant Atlas of the US: 1
Federal Noxious Weed: 0
TDA Noxious Weed: 0
TPWD Prohibited Exotic Species: 0

Description: Perennial infestation-forming bamboos, 16 to 40 feet (5 to 12 m) in height, with jointed cane stems and bushy tops of lanceolate leaves in fan clusters on grasslike stems, often golden green. Plants arising from branched rhizomes. A bamboo plant consists of two parts: the aboveground jointed stem called a culm, and the underground jointed rhizome which bears true roots. Stems are divided into inflated internodes; budding takes place at nodes. Spikelets are solitary with 8 to 12 flowers, but are rarely seen.

History: Native to Asia. Introduced in Alabama in 1882 as an ornamental. Continues to be introduced as a fenceline buffer in residential and urban areas. Widely planted as ornamentals and for fishing poles.

Biology & Spread: Reproduces vegetatively via budding of root rhizomes and runners. Rarely flowers (for decades). Flowering usually signifies death of the plant. Bamboo, once established, is very aggressive in both its rate of growth as well as the sprouting of new stems. It rapidly spreads in all directions from the location of establishment. Can reach 30 feet in height.

Ecological Threat: Infestations of bamboo displace native vegetation, alter habitat, and upset food chains. For streams, bamboo leaf litter alters stream food webs starting with litter-feeding stream invertebrates. It is also known to attract roaches in urban areas.

US Habitat: Thrives in full or partial sun and in moist, deep loamy soils. Often found as dense thickets along roadsides and residential right of ways. Also invades secondary forests, clearings, and forest edges.

Distribution

US Nativity: Introduced to U.S.

Native Origin: China, Japan (Alfred Rehder, Manual of Cultivated Trees and Shrubs: Hardy in North America, The MacMillan Co., New York (1967)); Kartesz, J.T., and C.A. Meacham. Synthesis of the North American Flora, Version 1.0., NatureServe Explorer

US States: AL, AR, FL, GA, LA, MD, MS, NC, OR, SC, TN, VA

Resembles/Alternatives:

Also, big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii), bottlebrush grass (Elymus hystrix), little bluestem (Schizachyrium scoparium), Indiangrass (Sorghastrum nutans).

Management: For small infestations, regularly cut back the bamboo, which eventually kills rhizomes by exhausting stored energy. An enclosing barrier three feet deep prevents spread. Use foliar chemical treatment (2% solution of glyphosate) for larger infestations.

USE PESTICIDES WISELY: ALWAYS READ THE ENTIRE PESTICIDE LABEL CAREFULLY, FOLLOW ALL MIXING AND APPLICATION INSTRUCTIONS AND WEAR ALL RECOMMENDED PERSONAL PROTECTIVE GEAR AND CLOTHING. CONTACT YOUR STATE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOR ANY ADDITIONAL PESTICIDE USE REQUIREMENTS, RESTRICTIONS OR RECOMMENDATIONS. MENTION OF PESTICIDE PRODUCTS ON THIS WEB SITE DOES NOT CONSTITUTE ENDORSEMENT OF ANY MATERIAL.

Listing Source

Texas Department ofAgriculture Noxious Plant List
Texas Parks and Wildlife Department Prohibited Exotic Species
Invaders Program
Federal Noxious Weed
Union of Concerned Scientists
United States Forest Service Southern Research Station

Text References

Data Source

The Quiet Invasion: A Guide to Invasive Plants of the Galveston Bay Area. Lisa Gonzalez and Jeff DallaRosa. Houston Advanced Research Center, 2006.

Swearingen, J., K. Reshetiloff, B. Slattery, and S. Zwicker. 2002. Plant Invaders of Mid-Atlantic Natural Areas. National Park Service and U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, 82 pp.

Last Updated: 2007-11-08 by LBJWFC