Verbena brasiliensis Vell. (Brazilian vervain )

 


Ted Bodner,
USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database / Miller, J.H. and K.V. Miller. 2005. Forest plants of the southeast and their wildlife uses. University of Georgia Press, Athens

 

 

 

Family: Verbenaceae (verbena family)

Synonym(s):

Duration: Annual

Habit: Subshrub


Listed by:
Invasive Plant Atlas of the US: 1
Federal Noxious Weed: 0
TDA Noxious Weed: 0
TPWD Prohibited Exotic Species: 0

Description: Verbena brasiliensis is an annual or short-lived perennial herb with erect, hispid, quadrangular stems of 1-2.5 meters in height. Upper branches are 4-9 cm long, opposite, and ascending. Opposite, elliptic leaves are simple and serate, 4-10 cm long by 0.8-2.5 cm wide. Leaves are generally hispid, with veins on undersides bearing large bristles. Bracted flowers are borne on terminal, loosely arranged spikes which are 0.5-4.5 cm long by 4-5 cm wide and are arranged in triads. Lanceolate bracts subtend the 5-lobed calyx, which is 2-3.5 mm long, with lobes united nearly to the apex. The bluish purple corolla is salverform, zygomorphic, and is exserted from the calyx slightly. The tube is 2.75-3.25 mm long and lobes are less than 1 mm in length. Bracts, calyx, and corolla tube are all pubescent. Anthers are attatched in the upper part of the corolla tube. Fruit is a schizocarp which usually produces 2 brown nutlets, 1.2-1.9mm long

History: Verbena brasiliensis is used as an ornamental and is cultivated for garden use

Biology & Spread: Verbena brasiliensis reproduces sexually by the production of seeds.

Ecological Threat: Verbena brasiliensis is an invasive plant that may threaten native plants species by displacing them. It is considered a significant invasive species of the mid-south United States, and is prohibited on National Forest System Lands of the United States.

US Habitat: range/grasslands, riparian zones, urban areas, wetlands

Distribution

US Nativity: Introduced to U.S.

Native Origin: South America

US States: AL, AR, CA, FL, GA, HI, KY, LA, MO, MS, NC, OK, OR, SC, TN, TX, VA

Resembles/Alternatives:

Management:
Preventative: In an effort to manage the species, Verbena brasiliensis should not be planted or sold as an ornamental.

Chemical: Herbicide may be used as a managment tool, but the herbicides sulfometuron and hexazinone are not effective on this species.

USE PESTICIDES WISELY: ALWAYS READ THE ENTIRE PESTICIDE LABEL CAREFULLY, FOLLOW ALL MIXING AND APPLICATION INSTRUCTIONS AND WEAR ALL RECOMMENDED PERSONAL PROTECTIVE GEAR AND CLOTHING. CONTACT YOUR STATE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOR ANY ADDITIONAL PESTICIDE USE REQUIREMENTS, RESTRICTIONS OR RECOMMENDATIONS. MENTION OF PESTICIDE PRODUCTS ON THIS WEB SITE DOES NOT CONSTITUTE ENDORSEMENT OF ANY MATERIAL.

Listing Source

Texas Department ofAgriculture Noxious Plant List
Texas Parks and Wildlife Department Prohibited Exotic Species
Invaders Program
Federal Noxious Weed
Union of Concerned Scientists
United States Forest Service Southern Research Station

Text References

National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII) & IUCN/SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG). 2008. Verbena brasiliensis (herb). Accessed 25 November 2008: http://www.invasivespecies.net/database/species/ecology.asp?si=1213&fr=1&sts=.

Data Source

Last Updated: 2008-25-11 by HTG