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Federal Noxious Weed
TDA Noxious Weed
TPWD Prohibited Exotic Species
Invasive Plant Atlas of the US

NOTE: means species is on that list.

Alternanthera sessilis


Sessile joyweed

Synonym(s): Achyranthes sessilis, Alternanthera glabra,
Gomphrena sessilis L.

Family: Amaranthaceae
Duration and Habit: Annual, Perennial Forb/Herb


Photographer: Karan A. Rawlins
Source: University of Georgia, Bugwood.org

Description

A low lying and sprawling herbaceous perennial, A. sessilis can range across the ground from 20-60 meters. Roots will often grow from nodes. Leaves are glabrous and grow directly from the stem. Leaf shapes are typically elliptical, oblong and oblanceolate and can range from 1.12-2.2 cm in length. Inflorescences grow at the axil and are sessile. The inflorescence is composed of small, white, ovate to lanceolate tepals. Fruits are small bladder-like structures containing one lenticular shaped seed. Seeds are roughly 0.9-1.1 mm long.

Native Lookalikes: Currently no information available here yet, or there are no native Texas species that could be confused with Sessile joyweed.

Ecological Threat: Covering large areas and very adaptable, A. sessilis can reduce crop yield in sugarcane, bananas and other cereal crops and infest wetland areas. Plants can block irrigation pipes and canals.

Biology & Spread: Can grow in dry areas but can also live partially submerged in water. Seeds are the main reproduction strategy but roots can form at nodes. Seeds are spread by wind and water.

History: A. sessilis is a plant that is purchased for a water garden and over the internet for aquariums; and that is likely how it escaped. It is also widely used for different foods in Southeast Asia and Africa, as well as duck and pig feed. It has noxious, prohibited, or quarantine weed status in AL, AR, CA, FL, MA, MN, NC, OR, SC and VT.

U.S. Habitat: A. sessilis can survive in both wetlands and agricultural areas and is highly adaptable. It can be found invading floodplain wetlands, margins of rivers, streams, canals, ditches, ponds, reservoirs, tanks, marshes, swamps, wet low-lying ground, ephemeral pools, seasonal pans and damp forest.

Distribution

U.S. Nativity: Introduced to U.S.

Native Origin: Southern Asia

U.S. Present: AL, AR, CA, FL, GA, HI, LA, MD, MN, MS, NC, OR, SC, TX, VT

Distribution in Texas: Spare reports from east Texas.

Mapping

Invaders of Texas Map: Alternanthera sessilis
EDDMapS: Alternanthera sessilis
USDA Plants Texas County Map: Alternanthera sessilis

Native Alternatives

Management

Mechanical: In Taiwanese rice fields hand-weeding is the most effective method since other cultural practices have proven ineffective.

Chemical: Can be controlled using amitrole. Also, repetitive applications of 2,4-D and MCPA are also moderately effective against this weed. Studies show A. sessilis is also susceptible to bensulfuron, oxadiazon and propanil but resistant to fenoxaprop and piperophos.

USE PESTICIDES WISELY: ALWAYS READ THE ENTIRE PESTICIDE LABEL CAREFULLY, FOLLOW ALL MIXING AND APPLICATION INSTRUCTIONS AND WEAR ALL RECOMMENDED PERSONAL PROTECTIVE GEAR AND CLOTHING. CONTACT YOUR STATE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOR ANY ADDITIONAL PESTICIDE USE REQUIREMENTS, RESTRICTIONS OR RECOMMENDATIONS. MENTION OF PESTICIDE PRODUCTS ON THIS WEB SITE DOES NOT CONSTITUTE ENDORSEMENT OF ANY MATERIAL.

Text References

Chiang MY, Leu IS, 1981. Weeds in Paddy Field and their Control in Taiwan. Weeds and Weed Control in Asia. Taiwan, China: Food and Fertiliser Technology Center.

Soerjani M, Kostermans AJGH, Tjitrosoepomo G, 1987. Weeds of Indonesia. Jakarta, Indonesia: Balai Pustaka, 716 pp.

Online Resources

http://www.plants.usda.gov/core/profile?symbol=ALSE4

http://www.inspection.gc.ca/plants/plant-protection/invasive-plants/fact-sheets/alternanthera-sessilis/eng/1331814440546/1331814543527

http://www.hear.org/pier/species/alternanthera_sessilis.htm

http://efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=200006977

https://www.iucngisd.org/gisd/speciesname/Alternanthera+sessilis#:~:text=Alternanthera%20sessilis%20is%20a%20pest%20of%20sugarcane%2C%20a,used%20for%20food%20partly%20due%20to%20its%20abundance.

https://www.cabidigitallibrary.org/doi/10.1079/cabicompendium.4404

Search Online

Google Search: Alternanthera sessilis
Google Images: Alternanthera sessilis
NatureServe Explorer: Alternanthera sessilis
USDA Plants: Alternanthera sessilis
Invasive Plant Atlas of the United States: Alternanthera sessilis
Bugwood Network Images: Alternanthera sessilis

Last Updated: 2024-02-09 by ARMO, TISI
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